Just thought I would add this for those that might come across this error. You have some system updates and/or have to reboot your farm (you should be doing this once a month AT LEAST anyway). You go to open up Central Administration and uh-oh - you see this:
In case you can't read the image, the error message is:
This operation can be performed only on a computer that is joined to a server farm by users who have permissions in SQL Server to read from the configuration database. To connect the server to the server farm, use the SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard, located on the Start menu in Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Products.
(Note - it says 2010, that's not a typo)
The problem is typically that SQL Server failed to start - this unfortunately is a common problem in 2012 R2 and I have seen it in 2014 as well. If you login to the SQL Server system, open the Services console through Administrative tools (or use Start > Run and enter services.msc). You'll likely find that the SQL Server engine and SQL Server Agent are stopped (even though they are set to start automatically!):
You do NOT have to reboot SQL Server; just start both services, wait a minute and refresh Central Administration.
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